When you’re a small animal in this big world, there are many dangers waiting behind every corner. So to stay alive to produce the next generation, many animals have developed ways of deterring potential predators or remaining hidden.
The most basic is bright colors. Although easily spotted, having bright colors in the animal kingdom indicates that they are poisonous to eat. Many animals use this method, particularly smaller, more delicate animals such as frogs or insects.
Another way of approaching survival is through fear and imitation. The very popular saying, “Red on yellow, kill a fellow. Red on black, friend of Jack.” is a perfect example of this. Coral snakes are known for their deadly poison and feared by many other creatures, including humans. So to stay alive, some other snake species abuse this common fear by imitating the appearance of the coral snake. Of course, it is not a perfect replica of the original, but it sure does work against most predators that frequently encounter the very deadly coral snake.
Appropriately named the “Dracula ant” after the popular Count Dracula character from the novel “Dracula”, this particular species feasts on the blood of its own kind. Not in the sense of eating ants of its own species but rather ants from their own colony. In order to feed themselves, these ants utilize a form of cannibalism that does not harm or kill the larvae. They chew holes into the larvae and begin to suck out the haemolymph (insect blood). In this way, the Dracula ants are dependent on a constant supply of eggs and must feed these eggs any morsels they find in order to survive.
As one of the most aggressive ant colonies, the Matabele ants obtain their meals primarily from termites. This results in the borderline massacre of any target termite mound and, if allowed to continue on their rampage, the death of the termite colony. But this is not a disorderly mob of ants. Instead, it is a highly organized army.
When a scout has identified a target, a raiding party follows after it in a line. Upon arrival, all of the ants gather around the scout before commencing the attack. The moment all of the ants have arrived, the raid begins. Large, fearsome majors tear away at the defenses of the termite mound while the tiny, nimble minors navigate the mud galleries of the termites, killing anything that comes in their way. When there is no more possible gain to be had, the ants regroup at their original location before making a line back home, carrying away plunder and their wounded comrades.
The Megaponera analis is one of the most aggressive ant species, along with the army ant. It’s common name — the Matabele ant — comes from a fierce tribe in South Africa known as the Matabele that conquered most of the other tribes in the area. The Matabele ant’s name is not simply a baseless rumor. In fact, their sole choice of food is the flesh of nearby termite colonies.
But this isn’t the Matabele ant’s only defining feature. While other species of ants will abandon their wounded, the Matabele ants try to not leave any of their wounded on the battlefield. Instead, they carry their wounded allies home and care for their wounds by “licking” them. It is unknown whether or not it is the “licking” process that helps them recover but, with this method, far fewer ants tend to die from their wounds. Experts say that this may be due to the presence of enzymes in the ant’s saliva or even simply keeping the wound clean.
In the animal world, a lost limb usually results in death. Whether it’s a loss of blood or being caught by a predator, death is more than likely. The world of insects, however, tells another story. Most insects can live with a missing leg or two. Take the Pholcus phalangioides for example. Commonly known as the “daddy long-legs”, it is one of the many spiders in the world and is characterized by 8 thin, long legs which are tipped with small claw-like extensions attached to its miniscule torso. When attacked, the daddy long-legs has the ability to detach any of its legs to escape, much like a gecko. The leg continues to twitch and writhe to distract the predator while the daddy long-legs makes a quick escape.
Most insects can even learn to move at the same speed as when it had all of its limbs. Of course, this change is not immediate, as it will take time in order to learn the new method of movement. A video by “Deep Look” on Youtube shows this phenomenone for those who are interested.